Introduction: To investigate the ultrastructural changes of dentin irradiated with 980-nm diode laser under different parameters and to observe the morphological alterations of odontoblasts and pulp tissue to determine the safety parameters of 980-nm diode laser in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH).
Methods: Twenty extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into four areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser under different parameters: Group A: control group, 0 J/cm²; Group B: 2 W/CW (continuous mode), 166 J/cm²; Group C: 3W/CW, 250 J/cm²; and Group D: 4W/CW, 333 J/cm². Ten additional extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into two areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser: Group E: control group, 0 J/cm²; and Group F: 2.0 W/CW, 166 J/cm². The morphological alterations of the dentin surfaces and odontoblasts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue irradiated by laser were observed with an upright microscope.
Results: The study demonstrated that dentinal tubules can be entirely blocked after irradiation by 980-nm diode laser, regardless of the parameter setting. Diode laser with settings of 2.0 W and 980-nm sealed exposed dentin tubules effectively, and no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation.
Conclusions: Irradiation with 980-nm diode laser could be effective for routine clinical treatment of DH, and 2.0W/CW (166 J/cm²) was a suitable energy parameter due to its rapid sealing of the exposed dentin tubules and its safety to the odontoblasts and pulp tissue.
Holland GR, Narhi MN, Addy M, Gangarosa L, Orchardson R. Guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials ondentine hypersensitivity. J Clin Periodontol.1997;24:808–13.
Dowell P, Addy M. Dentine hypersensitivity – a review. Aetiology, symptoms and theories of pain production. J Clin Periodontol.1983;10:341–50.
Hasan Guney Yilmaz a, Sevcan Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Esra Cengiz, Hakan Bayindir, Yasar Aykac. Clinical evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG and GaAlAs laser therap for treating dentine hypersensitivity: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Dent. 2011;39: 249–54.
Hmud, Kahler, George, Walsh. Cavitational effects in aqueous endodontic irrigants generated by near-infrared lasers. J Endod. 2010;36:275–8.
Bergmans, Moisiadis, Teughels, Van Meerbeek, Quirynen, Lambrechts. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on some endodontic pathogens exvivo. Int Endod J.2006; 39: 547–57.
Augusto R. Elias Boneta, Karol Ramirez, Joselyn Naboa, Luis R. Mateo, Bernal Stewart, Foti Panagokos, William De Vizio. Efficacy in reducing dentine hypersensitivity of a regimen using a toothpaste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate, a mouthwash containing 0.8% arginine, pyrophosphate and PVM/MA copolymer and a toothbrush compared to potassium and negative control regimens: an eight-week randomized clinical trial. J Dent. 2013; 41: 42-9.
Romeo Umberto, Russo Claudia, Palaia Gaspare, Tenore Gianluca, and Del Vecchio Alessandro.Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity by Diode Laser: A Clinical
Study.Int J Dent. 2012 Jun 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Canadian Advisory Board on Dentin Hypersensitivity. Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis andmanagement of dentin hypersensitivity. J Can Dent Assoc. 2003;69:221-6.
Bor-Shiunn Leea, Chun-Wei Changb, Weng-Pin Chenc, Wan-Hong Lana, Chun-Pin Lina. In vitro study of dentin hypersensitivity treated by Nd:YAP laser and bioglass. Dent Mater. 2005; 21: 511–9.
Aranha AC, Eduardo Cde P. In vitro effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on dentine hypersensitivity. Dentine permeability and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Lasers Med Sci. 2012; 27: 827-34.
Yilmaz HG, Kurtulmus-Yilmaz S, Cengiz E. Long-term effect of diode laser irradiation compared to sodium fluoride varnish in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity in periodontal maintenance patients: a randomized controlled clinical study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2011; 29:721-5.
Maden M, Görgül G, Sultan MN, Akça G, Er O. Determination of the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation through dentinal tubules on several oral pathogens. Lasers Med Sci. 2013;28:281-6.
Tavares JG, Eduardo CD, Burnett LH Jr, Boff TR, Freitas PM. Argon and Nd:YAG Lasers for Caries Prevention in Enamel. Photomed Laser Surg. 2012;30:433-7.
Azevedo DT, Faraoni-Romano JJ, Derceli Jdos R, Palma-Dibb RG. Effect of Nd:YAG laser combined with fluoride on the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization. Braz Dent J. 2012;23:104-9.
Maamary S, De Moor R, Nammour S. Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity by means of the Nd:YAG laser. Preliminary clinical study. Rev Belge Med Dent (1984). 2009;64:140-6.
Moshonov J, Orstavik D, Yamauchi S, Pettiette M, Trope M. Nd:YAG laser irradiation in root canal disinfection. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1995;11:220-4.
Perin FM, França SC, Silva-Sousa YT, Alfredo E, Saquy PC, Estrela C, Sousa-Neto MD.Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation versus 1% sodium hypochlorite irrigation for root canal disinfection. Aust Endod J. 2004;30:20-2.
Raucci-Neto W, Pécora JD, Palma-Dibb RG. Thermal effects and morphological aspects of human dentin surface irradiated with different frequencies of Er:YAG laser. Microsc Res Tech. 2012;75:1370-5.
Birang R, Poursamimi J, Gutknecht N, Lampert F, Mir M. Comparative evaluation of the effects of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser in dentin hypersensitivity treatment. Lasers Med Sci.2007; 22:21-4.
Gutknecht N, Franzen R, Schippers M, Lampert F.Bactericidal effect of a 980-nm diode laser in the root canal wall dentin of bovine teeth. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2004;22:9-13.
Raqueli Viapiana,Manoel D. Sousa-Neto, Aline Evangelista Souza-Gabriel, Edson Alfredo, Yara T. C. Silva-Sousa, Microhardness of Radicular Dentin Treated with 980-nm Diode Laser and Different Irrigant Solutions. Photomed Laser Surg. 2012; 30: 102–6.
Faria MI, Sousa-Neto MD, Souza-Gabriel AE, Alfredo E, Romeo U, Silva-Sousa YT. Effects of 980-nm diode laser on the ultrastructure and fracture resistance of dentine. Lasers Med Sci. 2013; 28:275-80.
Marchesan MA, Brugnera-Junior A, Souza-Gabriel AE, Correa-Silva SR, Sousa-Neto MD.Ultrastructural analysis of root canal dentine irradiated with 980-nm diode laser energy at different parameters. Photomed Laser Surg.2008; 26:235-40.
Srimaneepong V, Palamara JE, Wilson PR. Pulpal space pressure and temperature changes from Nd:YAG laser irradiation of dentin. 2002;30:291-6.
E. Alfredo, Marchesan, Sousa-Neto, A. Brugnera-Ju ´niora, Silva-Sousa.Temperature variation at the external root surface during 980-nm diode laser irradiation in the root canal. J Dent. 2008; 36:529–34.
Hubbezoglu I, Unal M, Zan R, Hurmuzlu F. Temperature Rises During Application of Er:YAG Laser Under Different Primary Dentin Thicknesses. Photomed Laser Surg. 2013 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Secilmis A, Bulbul M, Sari T, Usumez A. Effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding. Lasers Med Sci. 2013; 28: 167-70.
White JM, Fagan MC, Goodis HE. Intrapulpal temperatures during pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment of dentin, in vitro. J Periodontol. 1994; 65:255–9
Mehl A, Kremers L, Salzmann K, Hickel T. 3D volumeablation rate and thermal side effects with the Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser. Dent Mater. 1997; 13:246–51.
Durand SH, Flacher V, Roméas A, Carrouel F, Colomb E, Vincent C, Magloire H, Couble ML, Bleicher F, Staquet MJ, Lebecque S, Farges JC. Lipoteichoic acid increases TLR and functional chemokine expression while reducing dentin formation in in vitro differentiated human odontoblasts. J Immunol. 2006; 176:2880-7.
Farges JC, Keller JF, Carrouel F, Durand SH, Romeas A, Bleicher F, Lebecque S, Staquet MJ. Odontoblasts in the dental pulp immune response. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2009; 312B:425-36.
Alfredo, Souza–Gabriel, Silva, Sousa–Neto, Brugnera– Junior, Silva–Sousa. Morphological alterations of radicular dentine pretreated with different irrigations solutions and irradiated with 980 nm diode laser. Microsc Res Tech. 2009;72: 22–7.
Faria, Souza–Gabriel, Marchesan, Sousa–Neto, and Silva–Sousa.Ultrastructuralevaluation of radicular dentin after Nd:YAG laser irradiation combined with different chemical substances. Gen Dent. 2008;56: 641–6.
Stabholz A, Neev J, Liaw HL, Khayat A, Torabinejad M. Sealing of human dentinal tubules by XeCl 308-nm excimer laser. J Endod. 1993; 19:267–71.
Faria MI, Souza-Gabriel AE, Alfredo E, Messias DC, Silva-Sousa YT. Apical microleakage and SEM analysis of dentin surface after 980 nm diode laser irradiation.Braz Dent J. 2011; 22:382-7.
Coluzzi. An overview of laser wavelengths used in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am. 2000; 44: 753–65.
Faria MIA, Souza-Gabriel AE, Marchesan MA, Sousa- Neto MD, Silva-Sousa YTC. Ultrastructural evaluation of radicular dentin after Nd:YAG laser irradiation combined with different chemical substances. Gen Dent.2008;56:641-646.
Garcia LF, Naves LZ, Farina AP, Walker CM, Consani S, Pires-de-Souza FC. The effect of a 980 nm diode laser with different parameters of irradiation on the bond strength of fiberglass posts. Gen Dent. 2011;59:31-37.
Zach L, Cohen G. Pulp response to externally applied heat. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol.1965;19:515–30.